Tuesday, September 18, 2018 - 4:00pm to 5:00pm
Neurological Institute Auditorium, 1st Floor, 710 West 168th Street, New York
The concept of gene-environment interactions, wherein genetic predisposition shapes one’s response to particular environmental exposures, is widely recognized in a variety of neurological disorders, but poorly understood. In particular, how are environmental exposures conveyed to genes, and how do they confer lasting effects on brain and behavior? The microbiota is well positioned at this intersection, as its composition and function are dependent on genetic background and shaped by environmental factors, including infection, diet and drug treatments. Moreover, changes in the microbiota have lasting effects on health and disease. For example, several diet-induced phenotypes are sufficiently mediated by changes in the gut microbiota; symptoms of atherosclerosis in response to a carnitine-rich diet, malnutrition in response to the Malawian diet and obesity in response to the “Western” diet are each recapitulated by transplanting the diet-induced microbiota into mice that are fed standard chow. Here we explore the effects of dietary alterations in the context of genetic susceptibility to neural dysfunction, using the ketogenic diet and epilepsy as a model system. We find that the microbiota is both necessary and sufficient for the anti-seizure effects of the ketogenic diet across two mouse models for refractory epilepsy and further explore molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying microbial modulation of neuronal activity.
Elaine Y. Hsiao, Ph.D.
University of California, Los Angeles